Computers Reshaping Global Job Market, Says Researcher
Increased automation and computation have boosted demand for both highly educated and low-skilled workers around the globe, while eroding demand for middle-skilled jobs, according to a recent research. MIT professor, David Autor, author of the report told Reuters that it is only the highly educated workers who are benefiting through higher wages, but middle and lower skilled workers are seeing their wages decline.
That is in part because as middle skilled jobs dry up, those workers are more likely to seek lower-skilled jobs, boosting the pool of available labor and putting downward pressure on wages, explains Autor. “While computerization has strongly contributed to employment polarization, we would not generally expect these employment changes to culminate in wage polarization except in tight labor markets,” he mentions in the report.
Any long term strategy to take advantage of advances in computers should rely heavily on investments in human capital to produce “skills that are complemented rather than substituted by technology,” he adds.
Recounting the long history of laborers vilifying technological advances, Autor argues that most such narratives underestimate the fact that computers often complement rather than replace the jobs of higher skilled workers. People with skills that are easily replaced by machines, such as 19th century textile workers, do lose their jobs, Autor tell the agency, stating that in recent years computer engineers have pushed computers farther into territory formerly considered to be human only, like driving a car.
Despite all this, he argues that computer driven job polarization has a natural limit. For some jobs, such as medical technicians who take blood samples, routine tasks are too intertwined with those requiring interpersonal and other human skills to be easily replaced.
“I expect that a significant stratum of middle skill, non college jobs combining specific vocational skills with foundational middle skills literacy, numeracy, adaptability, problem solving and common sense will persist in coming decades,” Autor wrote.
The researcher has studied technology and its impact on jobs since before the dotcom bubble burst, notes that some economists have pointed to the weak U.S. labor market since the 2000s as evidence of the adverse impact of computerization. The U.S. investment in computers, which had been increasing strongly, dropped just as labor demand also fell, exactly the opposite of what ought to happen if technology is replacing labor.
Autor says that globalization is to blame, hurting demand for domestic labor and, like technology, helping to reshape the labor landscape. While in the long run both globalization and technology should in theory benefit the economy, he wrote, their effects are “frequently slow, costly, and disruptive.x
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